[Reading] ➬ Proust contre la déchéance. Conférence au camp de Griazowietz ➳ Józef Czapski – Dailytradenews.co.uk



10 thoughts on “Proust contre la déchéance. Conférence au camp de Griazowietz

  1. says:

    DELLA NECESSIT DELL ARTEC un ufficiale polacco, un aristocratico pittore e scrittore, che nel 1941 prigioniero dei russi in un gulag dalle parti del confine con la Finlandia non la Siberia, ma anche qui i lavori forzati sono all aperto, e all aperto la temperatura arriva a meno quaranta proprio come nella Kolyma.J zef Czapski nacque a Praga il 3 aprile del 1896 e mor a Parigi il 12 gennaio del 1993 Un uomo magro e alto due metri, che ama la pittura, la letteratura, l arte in genere un uomo intelligente e colto il cui nome associato a quello sinistro di Katyn fu uno dei pochi ufficiali a scampare all esecuzione di massa nella quale i russi massacrarono circa 22.000 ufficiali, soldati, poliziotti, civili polacchi, che poi interrarono in fosse comuni.Un altro autoritratto di J zef Czapski, che fu scrittore, critico, pittore, ufficiale dell esercito polacco Nel refettorio di un convento, dove il freddo non arriva a meno quaranta gradi, ma comunque pi che pungente, Joseph Czapski intrattiene i suoi compagni ufficiali con una conferenza su Proust In realt , le conferenze erano un intero ciclo e abbracciavano argomenti quali la storia del libro, la storia dell Inghilterra, la storia delle migrazioni dei popoli, l America del Sud, l architettura Czapski ne tenne alcune sulla pittura e questa, semplicemente meravigliosa, su Proust e la Recherche.Un altra opera dello stesso Czapski La sua pittura fortemente influenzata da Cezanne Erano conferenze che probabilmente duravano almeno un paio d ore, a giudicare dal numero di pagine due ore seduti fermi al freddo della sala mensa del convento Forse queste iniezioni di cultura non sfamavano i presenti, ma credo si possa dire che se non altro li scaldavano.E poi c la conferenza, esposta a memoria senza l ausilio di testi ricerche e verifiche, perch erano prigionieri di un lager sovietico.La memoria di Czapski a me pare eccellente, prodigiosa conosce la materia, conosce Proust, l ha letto riletto meditato, si nutrito della Recherche.In seguito al trattato Sikorski Mayski tra Polonia e Unione Sovietica firmato a Londra il 30 luglio 1941, Czapski fu inviato in URSS alla ricerca degli ufficiali polacchi scomparsi.A me che ho un culto per quest opera, sembra che Czapski l abbia letta meglio di me sa farmela rivivere, palpitante, mi svela particolari che non ricordavo o mi erano sfuggiti, dettagli e sfumature fondamentali.E evidente l ammirazione e l a per lo scrittore francese Joseph Czapski riesce a trasmettere tutto questo, in quel luogo, in quella situazione, a quel pubblico.A Parigi Czapski fece parte della diaspora polacca e fu tra i fondatori di Kultura, la pi importante rivista dell emigrazione polacca della seconda met del Novecento.A me sembra semplicemente meraviglioso.E, forse, irripetibile.Opera dipinta sempre da Czapski.


  2. says:

    The most extraordinary thing about the pages of this book is not so much what they contain but that they exist at all.Joseph Czapski 1896 1993 , born in Prague but in a family of the Polish nobility, was lucky to escape the massacre in Katyn in 1940, in which it is estimated that 22,000 people were executed by the Soviets He then became a prisoner in the concentration camp of Griazowietz in Russia for eighteen months This camp had originally been a pilgrimage site and a convent.Before Czapski fell into the mouth of hell he had been a painter and a writer and a Francophile.This book has the lectures on Proust that he gave to his prison companions while at Griazowietz In the Preface written in 1944, he explains the genesis and the setting for these lectures In the prison he had no libraries, no reference material He had to write everything from his head A few of the prisoners decided to organize lectures on various subjects military, historical, literary , so as to fight their own anxiety Some of these lectures were deemed counter revolutionary by the prison guards, and the authors were made to disappear The lectures, however, were not interrupted.For a Proustian in the twenty first century may be a great part of the lectures is less interesting for what they say on Proust Czapski provides little that we would not know But they are, however, extraordinary to read because he was lecturing on Proust about twenty years after the author s death, and any Proustian knows that Proust was not given his due in his own country really until the 60s 70s His knowledge of Proust s life, and of the complex history of the publication history, is astounding given not only that no material was available to him at the time of writing but also how little he would have encountered before.His sources must have been just a handful.There was the book edited by Proust s publishing house in 1928, Hommage a Marcel Proust , with essays by Mauriac, Gide, Cocteau, Fargue, as well as the article written by Mauriac in 1922 on Proust s death Sur la Tombe We should, however, remember that Mauriac s first book on Proust was not published till 1947 Proust s Way.And the second major source would be his acquaintance with the Polish Misia Godebska Sert I have her bio on my shelves Misia She had been a friend of Proust and she helped Czapski and his painter friends to organize an exhibition of their group Kapiste in Paris in 1923 It was this exhibition that offered the Polish painter the opportunity to spend several years in the French capital But these were hard times and he lived in dire conditions He contracted typhus and it was during his convalescence that he read the entire La recherche.The lectures were then prepared by a man to be given to other men as they were all facing death For this he prepared a series of mind maps, several of which have survived and are included in full colour in this edition His lectures are delightful because of the lucidity and sensitivity of his analysis and because they exude so very naturally his love for Prous t writing He also quotes several times from memory, very much la Proust and this edition has provided at the foot of the page the original quote by Proust They are amazingly faithful.Czapski s Et toute la nuit, dans toutes les vitrines illumin es des librairies de Paris, ses livres ouverts trois trois veillaient comme des anges avec des ailes d ploy es le corps de l crivain d funt. Proust s On l enterra, mais toute la nuit fun bre, aux vitrines clair es, ses livres, dispos s trois par trois, veillaient come des anges aux ailes ploy es et semblaient, pour celui qui n tait plus, le symbole de sa r surrection..But apart from all the above, what is also fascinating is the way Czapski s emphasizes Proust s refusal to indoctrinate or judge by putting this feature in the context of Polish literature He addresses the controversy surrounding Joseph Conrad Josef Konrad Nalecz Korzeniowski , accused by many of his fellow Polish writers of betrayal to the nation, and his defence by Stefan eromski, who contrariwise, had chosen to stay national The magnanimous Zeromski lauds Conrad because he had been able to realize what he, Zeromski, had had to sacrifice freedom from the responsibility to one s nation Czapski was addressing this to a group of soldiers who had risked, and were still risking, their lives in the service of their nation.And to help this audience combat their own anxiety, Czapski then underlines a few concepts from Proust s work They all begin with the notion of Vanity of Pride, of Youth and Beauty, of Celebrity, of Love Vanitas et Veritas.The closing pages close on the closing pages for everyone Death By addressing Proust s description of the death of one of his characters and by finding the parallels to Proust s death, Czapski zeroes into the Proustian theme of the only possible eternity, that of one s work, of one s deeds Thinking of his audience.Czapski was fortunate for he was eventually liberated and led a long life After settling back in France after the war, he died at the age of 97 and is now buried at Mesnil le Roi.We have his paintings and his lectures to remember him.


  3. says:

    Despite his name figuring prominently in the the title of the book, Proust is not the primary subject of this account of a combat against degradation he is simply the vehicle for this unique story of bravery and stoicism in the face of death.When the German army entered Polish territory on the 1st of September 1939, Joseph Czapski, aged 43, a former officer in the Polish army, rejoined his regiment and was sent to fight on the Russian front By the 27th of the month he was a Soviet prisoner of war along with fifteen thousand other Polish officers and soldiers They were kept in various prison camps in the USSR between October 1939 and 1941 Czapski spent most of his internment in a camp at Griazowietz, some five hundred kilometres north east of Moscow Of the fifteen thousand originally captured, the four hundred or so prisoners at Griazowietz were the only survivors The rest disappeared without trace many thousands of them are now known to have been executed in the forests of Katyn near Smolensk.That is simply the background information the main text of this book is an account of the seminars Czapski conducted from memory for his fellow prisoners during any free time remaining after hours spent working under harsh and degrading conditions He and his fellow soldiers sought to combat their physical and mental collapse by sharing their knowledge with each other They had originally planned to deal with political and military history but the authorities quickly removed anyone who spoke of those subjects That only left literature, painting and music, and so, with the help of the arts, Czapski and his comrades tried to maintain their dignity as thinking, feeling human beings.Czapski had spent some years in Paris and had read the many volumes of Proust s la recherche du temps perdu several times over In the confines of the camp, and with nothing but an old copybook and some pencils, he set about recreating the text and examining its themes using diagrams and sketches as well as many quotes he had learned by heart He situates Proust s work in its time and talks of his principal influences as well as the works which Proust influenced in his turn The feat of memory involved is truly impressive.Czapski covers a lot of themes in this 60 page essay but perhaps the most moving aspect for me is his firm acknowledgement that Proust, who never mentions God in his thousands of printed pages, shows himself nevertheless to be the most tolerant of individuals, seeking simply to understand the passions which drive us all, the base and so called degenerate as well as the noble and pure of mankind s obsessions That this idea could be seen and understood by a man being held prisoner in dreadful conditions by an enemy force is proof of what Proust himself believed in most fervently the redeeming power of art.


  4. says:

    Involuntary MemoriesWhat other essential function can literature have than to let us know that there are experiences other than those immediately our own Literature may also evoke emotions or help us to formulate our own interpretations of the world, but only after it has enticed us into perceiving the world from a different point of view In a time of routine, that is to say expected daily life, the knowledge that there are other worlds than the one we contingently inhabit can be consoling, inspiring, or merely distracting But for those who find themselves in extremis physically, mentally, or spiritually, and who have prepared themselves sufficiently, literature can be a matter of survival J sef Czapski was such a person in such a situation Interned as a Polish Army officer by the Soviet Army during WW II, Czapski and his other Polish comrades faced not just extreme physical hardship but also the likelihood of sudden and unexplained death at the hands of their captors Literally the only resource available to Czapski was his own intellect and his ability to share it with the intellects of his fellow prisoners If either he or they had not developed their taste and understanding of the written word, they very well could have succumbed to their circumstances For both Czapski and his fellow prisoners, the social glue which helped them stay united and mutually supportive was not shared personal memories, of which there are necessarily few among any random collection of people, nor shared commitments, to their Polish nationality for example, which once expressed can only become tediously repetitive or simply hollow Unexpectedly, what arose in Czapski s mind were entire sections of books he had read, especially parts of Proust s immense fictional memoir Czapski finds himself re enacting in the prison camp the kind of stream of remembrance, not of his own life but of his experience of Proust s writing including the allusions, ideas, and suggestions it provoked in him.From these thoughts he lectured to groups of other prisoners after days of hard labour in overwhelmingly difficult conditions In the lectures Proust became a template for survival among the prisoners, a growing reminder that the world of their gulag was not the entire world They provided, literally, a spiritual escape and therefore a hope of physical freedom These lectures were written down from memory after the war and published by Czapski with the explicit purpose of commemorating those men, their courageous suffering and the debt they owed to literature for enabling them to endure what they did.Because he had no access to a library, nor indeed to any reference material at all, Czapski had to rely entirely on his memory So what he talked and wrote about Proust was not in any way an academic exercise Rather, his lectures are reports about what he had learned, about how and why he came to appreciate Proust Literary history, biography, poetry, art, criticism, and philosophy run into and across one another continuously He shows, in other words, how Proust slowly influenced his aesthetic judgment, and therefore how Czapski came to perceive not just Proust, but also the world and himself The result, therefore, is an aesthetic biography which probably could never have been written in circumstances other than total deprivation by a man who had unknowingly prepared for just that task throughout his education As Czapski notes in his lectures Proust repeatedly insists that only involuntary memory is significant in art All Czapski and his fellow prisoners had were these involuntary memories What they were able to do with them is remarkable.Oh, and yes, it is a rather good introduction for reading Proust.Postscript I am indebted to Nick Grammos on GR in Australia for directing me toward this extraordinary work Thanks Nick.


  5. says:

    Proust contro la decadenza.Eppure a me la quinta scenica mancata, anche se purtroppo si tratta, si trattava, di gelida realt , quella del realmente gelido refettorio del convento sconsacrato di Griazowietz, in Siberia, dove Czapski, tenuto prigioniero, si incontrava con gli altri detenuti polacchi Le lezioni su Proust che Czapski teneva agli altri ufficiali polacchi lui e poche altre centinaia di ufficiali polacchi furono fra gli scampati al massacro di Katyn a fronte degli undicimila uccisi in massa da parte dell Armata Rossa , prigionieri come lui nel gulag sovietico di Griazowietz fra il 1940 e il 1941, ufficiali insieme ai quali aveva deciso, per combattere l abbrutimento morale e psicologico ai quali erano sottoposti, di intrattenersi parlando di arte e letteratura, sono per l appunto lezioni trascritte da uno dei suoi compagni di prigionia, ma sono solo quello bellissime, intense, culturalmente elevate, un approfondimento per chi ha letto e amato la Recherche, e uno stimolo per chi come me, che ho letto solo i primi volumi la Recherche l ha soltanto sfiorata Ma non c traccia e a me sarebbe piaciuto trovarla del campo di prigionia di Griazowietz, n contaminazione alcuna con la la realt che gli stessi ufficiali stavano vivendo contemporaneamente a quelle lezioni, e quindi bene sgombrare subito il campo da attese diverse da quello che queste ottantacinque pagine raccontano, per evitare delusioni e false aspettative qui si parla di Proust, e della Recherche, non di Griazowietz, di Katyn, o dell Armata Rossa e non poco, anzi stupefacente, in ogni caso, pensare che tutto quello che Czapski scrive in realt la trascrizione dei discorsi orali fatti da Czapski, quindi l attenzione deve essere spostata necessariamente sul fatto che Czapski ricorda a memoria tutto ci che racconta, e in quest ottica vanno inseriti anche i possibili errori non frutto di una lezione prima pensata e poi scritta sulla base dei propri appunti o delle proprie conoscenze confutate mediante la consultazione dell opera di Proust, ma solo della memoria dell autore i ricordi della memoria involontaria memoria, oltretutto, sollecitata in condizioni di disagio fisico e psichico.Czapski, letterato, poeta e pittore, si serve della Bellezza per sopravvivere, fino al punto di riuscire a trascendere la realt , grazie al suo insegnamento, e diventare indifferente alla morte e a trovare un ncora di salvezza alla quale restare aggrappato alla vita.Se per i lettori della Recherche, questo esile librino, solo una conferma e un modo per rivivere l incanto provato durante la lettura dell opera di Proust, per me, che ho letto queste pagine come un troglodita abbacinato e attonito , il rinnovato stimolo a riprenderne la lettura quanto prima, il mio proposito letterario per il 2016 La gioia di poter partecipare ad un impresa intellettuale in grado di dimostrarci che eravamo ancora in grado di pensare e reagire a realt dello spirito che non avevano niente in comune con la nostra condizione di allora trasfigurava ai nostri occhi quelle ore passate nel grande refettorio dell ex convento, questa strana scuola clandestina dove rivivevamo un mondo che ci sembrava perduto per sempre incomprensibile perch proprio noi, quattrocento ufficiali e soldati, ci siamo salvati su quindicimila compagni scomparsi senza lasciare tracce, da qualche parte sotto il circolo polare artico ai confini della Siberia Su questo lugubre sfondo, quelle ore trascorse a ricordare Proust e Delacroix mi sembrano le pi felici Non c niente di pi facile che citare in maniera precisa, basta controllare nei libri Ma infinitamente pi difficile assimilare una citazione a tal punto da farla propria e trasformarla dentro di s Vasilij Rozanov Adelphi l ha appena ripubblicato con il titolo Proust a Grjazovec.


  6. says:

    8 marzoConosco una persona che, in un periodo difficile della sua vita, impar a memoria la Medea di Euripide una delle sue tragedie preferite per poter recitare a se stessa i versi nei momenti in cui la sofferenza sembrava sopraffarla E so che queste sue private rappresentazioni le hanno regalato momenti di reale libert dal dolore, e imprevedibili lampi di gioia E poich questa persona una donna, oggi le dedico il mio piccolo commento a questo libro che , oltre una piacevole e raffinata lettura proustiana, anche e soprattutto una testimonianza di come l arte forse non salva la vita, ma la rende pi sopportabile.


  7. says:

    The author is quite modest about how great is his accomplishment in Lost Time As he s being tortured, overworked, sleep deprived, starved he can still find the strength and inspiration to lecture his fellow prisoners on the beauty and meaning of Proust and his writing Just beautiful a spiritual experience


  8. says:

    Off late, I have been reading a lot about memory and the passage of time and that has happened quite organically There is no planned reading list around it It just happened by the by and one of those books happened to be Lost Time Lectures on Proust in a Soviet Camp by J zef Czapski The concept of suffering isn t new to humans We have been suffering one way or the other in one situation or the other for decades and centuries Of course, a certain group of people suffer at any given point, but again that s not the point here The point is resilience in the face of suffering, in the face of the unknown, to not have any idea of what will happen to you What do you do then Lost Time is a book of lectures given by Czapski when he was a prisoner of war during the Second World War in a Soviet camp, as the title suggests We Tell Ourselves Stories in Order to Live, said Joan Didion in The White Album and it couldn t be truer Don t we all at some level tell stories in order to survive Whether it is merely surviving the mundane day after day or when we are caught in an extraordinary situation like Scheherazade s These lectures brought Proust s In Search of Lost Time to life for prison inmates This slim volume is a collection of some of those lectures that Czapski gave, depending solely on memory so befitting to Proust sketching characters, places, and time, thereby evoking so many emotions on the spectrum within the inmates Also, it is so strange to be talking of Proust in a prison camp the volumes of aristocracy, elegance, and grace only to prove that Proust can be felt by all At the same time, what I love about this book is that it is an easy read Czapski made Proust accessible and perhaps may even encourage you to read Proust once you are done reading Lost Time You don t need to read it first Also, Proust in Gulag does it seem to say a lot about the human condition and how we are as a species Czapski s love for the master is evident through every speech he merges Proust s life with the six volumes and that to me is magnificent I just wish this book were longer I wish there were speeches A definite must read For Proust lovers and the non lovers as well.


  9. says:

    il libro di czapski mi ha portato a riflettere pi che su proust, sebbene le sue idee sullo scrittore francese siano pi che condivisibili, sul tema della memoria che in proust argomento centrale Non un caso che la memoria fosse per la Grecia antica la madre di tutte le muse oramai ci siamo ridotti ai sussidi tecnologici, alla opportunit di tenere sotto mano le cose che leggiamo, di recuperarle con un click Non una critica al progresso, ma un rimpianto per quello che stiamo perdendo, la pi importante funzione della memoria quella salvifica E come se adesso non ci siano pi poesie o melodie che giacciono realmente sul fondo dei nostri cuori Non c pi ingestione, termine che amava usare Ben Jonson, ma solo consumo peggio ancora consumiamo il masticato, cos che ogni commento, atto di esilio, ci allontana dalla fonte stiamo perdendo l opportunit di essere gli interpreti pi autentici dei processi creativi I testi, le melodie, non esercitano pi quell effetto massa interiore, non sono pi quella potenza implosiva che faceva vibrare le corde nella camera dell io Quelle vibrazioni erano vere a tal punto che Samuel Johnson insinuava che la nostra anima era disposta a credere che fossimo noi stessi gli artefici di quelle parole o di quelle note Per Rabelais, tutte le parole scritte o dette dall inizio dei tempi non scomparivano, ma vivevano in un tempo congelato, dal quale sarebbero tornate con il calore del ricordo, del bisogno, del dolore Quelle parole che permettono a noi di riconoscere quello che eravamo allora e che avevano molto senso perch poi siamo stati noi stessi ancora, ma vivificati Sembra che qui, in queste parole disperse in un gulag, tra sopraffazione e dolore, risuoni quel passo di Walter Pater che invita a vedere dritti di fronte a noi l arte che ci viene incontro, proponendoci di non dare altro che la qualit pi eletta ai nostri momenti, felici o tragici che siano, mentre passano Questa sublimazione della vita, o meglio, dei momenti della vita attraverso la comprensione estetica una qualit rara, per alcuni inafferrabile, impossibile Non la raggiungono perch tra questa qualit e loro rimane come un velo che non si squarcia come un sipario che non si apre per un difetto della memoria Loro non sanno n sapranno mai quali mondi meravigliosi non esploreranno Per loro c un detto orientale che dice chador e sotto niente.


  10. says:

    I read this book when it first came out in French, and just re read it in Karpeles s English translation A Proust scholar will find perhaps little that they would consider new in terms of research, and the main interest of the book may be its context While imprisoned in Gryazovets, a Russian camp near Vologda, located in a bombed out monastery, Czapski participated in a series of sometimes authorized, sometimes clandestine lectures inmates would discourse from memory on any topic dear to them, whether literature, sports, geography Czapski gave a series of talks on the history of painting and, as we learn from Karpeles s biography of Czapski, Almost Nothing, even drafted an art historical volume, but the notes were lost, confiscated As he worked on his topic, another idea came to haunt him to present to his fellow prisoners the work of Proust whom he saw as a sort of prisoner, locked in his corked bedroom, in disregard of his health, entirely devoted to his work Proust s In Search of Lost Time brought hope of a time regained into a place so remote and seemingly antithetical to the aristocratic world he describes Speaking to Polish fellows in arms, Czapski nevertheless gave his lectures in French His notes, some of which are reproduced and translated with only a handful of very slight errors in the plate section, are a visual map to his interpretation of Proust, drafted mainly in Polish, with a sprinkling of French, German, Latin, as required by the origin of the references The French edition of these talks presents perhaps a fragile text as it preserves some grammatical errors and omissions made in the surviving transcripts of these lectures The journey from the original conception to the published text is in itself fascinating it s not clear whether Czapski had detailed notes or whether he spoke based on the mental map in the form of visual diagrams recorded in the notebooks afterwards, he dictated the lectures in abridged form to two inmates who transcribed it on a typewriter as Karpeles points out, mystery envelops the circumstances of the creation of this typescript a typewriter in a gulag Eventually a second typescript was created Both bear some handwritten corrections made by Czapski, perhaps others Karpeles s version relies on a comparison between the two versions whereas the French publication had access to only one typescript Perhaps because of publishing costs, the NYRB edition reproduces only a few select pages with the draft diagrams, accompanied by a translation on the facing page The French version doesn t offer translations of its plates, but includes color photographs of the entire notebook, including the two tattered covers with the title Tyetrad Exercise Book , printed in Cyrillics Let not the Proust scholar be too disappointed or walk away too early, however While Czapski may seem to add little to the scholarship, doesn t encountering Proust in the gulag tell us something about Proust we may have previously overlooked And plain and unscholarly as Czapski s interpretation may appear, it brings in his unique erudition by setting Proust side by side Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, Zeromski, Conrad in ways that to a discerning eye might indeed suggest new avenues of exploration


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